Defensor público pode ser proibido de sustentar alguma tese?

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Por Caio Paiva

Imagine que você, na condição de defensor público, se depare com um assistido acusado de praticar o crime de lesão corporal contra um homossexual, dizendo que somente agrediu a vítima porque ela passou por ele com “trajes inadequados” e insinuou um flerte, razão pela qual teria agido em defesa da própria honra. Se o exemplo lhe parece um pouco distante, imagine uma situação frequente na Defensoria Pública: o assistido, pronunciado e submetido a julgamento pelo Tribunal do Júri por ter matado a sua mulher, alega que praticou o crime para defender a própria honra, pois teria encontrado a vítima lhe traindo com um vizinho.

O defensor público, diante desses casos hipotéticos apresentados, poderia sustentar em favor do assistido a tese da legítima defesa da honra? Se a resposta for positiva, questiona-se: ao proceder dessa forma, não estará o defensor público assumindo a esquizofrênica[1] postura de promover os direitos humanos sustentando teses que reproduzem e aprofundam violações a direitos humanos? Se a resposta àquela pergunta for negativa, questiona-se: é possível estabelecer um “controle ético ou ideológico do argumento”? Sendo mais claro: o defensor público pode ser proibido de sustentar alguma tese? Vejamos.

Antes de prosseguir, tenhamos em conta que o assunto não é apenas polêmico na prática, mas também complicado no plano teórico, envolvendo, inclusive, um confronto entre objetivos da Defensoria Pública: de um lado, a primazia da dignidade da pessoa humana e a prevalência e efetividade dos direitos humanos (artigo 3º-A, I e III[2]), que certamente exigem da Defensoria uma atuação comprometida com os direitos humanos; e de outro, a garantia dos princípios constitucionais da ampla defesa e do contraditório (artigo 3º-A, IV), que reclamam uma atuação comprometida com os interesses do assistido. O mesmo confronto se verifica entre funções institucionais da Defensoria, havendo, de um lado, a função de promover a difusão e a conscientização dos direitos humanos, da cidadania e do ordenamento jurídico (artigo 4º, III) e, de outro, a função de promover a mais ampla defesa dos direitos fundamentais dos necessitados (artigo 4º, X).

Não simpatizo com a ideia de censurar ou de proibir que o defensor público sustente determinada tese em favor de seu assistido. A liberdade de argumento é indissociável de uma defesa criminal efetiva. Assim, qualquer espécie de controle ético ou ideológico sobre a atuação do defensor público deve ficar no plano da recomendação, e não no da proibição, e isso porque, embora existam algumas teses que reproduzam concepções contrárias aos direitos humanos, a possibilidade de limitar o discurso defensivo — em questões de gênero, por exemplo — pode encontrar terreno fértil no Brasil e ser ampliada para outros temas menos sensíveis, numa tentativa de convergir a defesa criminal com valores comunitários morais ou éticos.

Se o controle ético ou ideológico da defesa criminal não pode impedir a sustentação de determinado argumento, tal conclusão não veicula, porém, uma obrigação de o defensor público necessariamente encampar a fala do acusado, já que nem sempre haverá uma vinculação entre as defesas técnica e pessoal no processo penal, sendo o defensor e o acusado, conforme adverte Claus Roxin, reciprocamente autônomos[3]. Por isso, deparando-se o defensor público com o requerimento de algum assistido para que sustente determinada tese contrária aos direitos humanos (a legítima defesa da honra em casos de feminicídio, por exemplo), entendo que o defensor poderá se valer de sua prerrogativa de deixar de patrocinar a ação (no que se insere também a defesa) por considerá-la manifestamente incabível ou inconveniente aos interesses da parte (artigos 44, XII, 89, XII, e 128, XII, da LC 80/94).

A Constituição Federal incumbiu à Defensoria Pública a promoção dos direitos humanos (artigo 134, caput), de modo que é possível extrair dessa função, segundo a lição de Renata Tavares da Costa, “uma obrigação positiva, ou seja, de assegurar o efetivo acesso de gozo de tais direitos, bem como uma posição negativa, qual seja, de abster-se de determinadas atitudes que aprofundem a violação destes direitos”[4]. Pode ser que, em algumas ocasiões, a efetividade da defesa criminal esteja condicionada justamente a um discurso contemporâneo e inteligente que conduza, por exemplo, um caso de violência de gênero a partir da diminuição da culpabilidade do acusado diante de sua formação moral num ambiente discriminatório, e não a partir de uma sugestionada culpa da vítima[5].

A Defensoria é responsável pela construção de sua história e, mais do que isso, pela consolidação de sua identidade. Pode ser apenas (mais) uma instituição no cenário jurídico do país, e assim contribuir para a manutenção do status quo, mas pode, também, representar o novo, abrir o armário das ideias eticamente comprometidas com os direitos humanos e colocar na gaveta tudo aquilo que produziu e que ainda produz discriminação, dor e sofrimento.

 

 

Fonte: ConJur

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